Part 2: Police

PART 2: POLICE

DIVISION 1: CLEANLINESS AND SECURITY

  • Police is the second general division of jurisprudence.
    • The name is French.
    • It is originally derived from the Greek πολιτεία, which properly signified the policy of civil government.
  • But now it only means the regulation of the inferior parts of government:
    • cleanliness,
      • This deals with the proper method of carrying dirt from the streets.
    • security and
      • This deals with the execution of justice, so far as it regards regulations for preventing crimes or the method of keeping a city guarded.
      • Cleanliness and security are useful but are too mean to be considered in this kind of general discourse.
      • I will just give a few observations on it.
    • cheapness or plenty.

 

  • The cities that have the most police and the most regulations on it, do not always have the greatest security.
    • In Paris, the regulations on police are so numerous.
    • In London, there are [155] only two or three simple regulations.
    • Yet in Paris, scarce a night passes without somebody being killed.
    • While in London, a larger city, there are scarce three or four in a year.
  • On this account, one would think that the more police, the less the security.
    • But this is not the cause.
  • In England and France during the time of the feudal government, and as late as Queen Elizabeth’s reign, many retainers were kept idle about the noblemen’s houses to keep the tenants in awe.
    • When these retainers were turned out, they had no other way of getting their subsistence but by committing robberies and living on plunder.
      • This created the greatest disorder.
    • These feudal manners are still preserved in France.
      • It causes the difference.
  • The Paris nobility keep far more menial servants than ours.
    • These are often turned out on their own account or through the caprice of their masters.
    • Being in the most indigent circumstances, they are forced to commit the most dreadful crimes.
  • In Glasgow, almost nobody has more than one servant.
    • There are fewer capital crimes than in Edinburgh.
    • In Glasgow there is not one in several years.
    • But not a year passes in Edinburgh without some such disorders.
  • Therefore on this principle, it is not so much the police that prevents the commission of crimes as the having as few persons as possible to live on others.
    • Nothing tends so much to corrupt mankind as dependency, while independency still increases the honesty of the people.

 

  • The establishment of commerce and manufactures brings about this independency.
    • It is the best police for preventing crimes.
  • The common people have better wages in [156] this way than in any other.
    • In consequence of this, a general probity of manners takes place throughout the country.
  • Nobody will beg on the highway if he can make better bread in an honest and industrious way.
  • The nobility of Paris and London are much on a level.
    • But the common people of Paris are much more dependent.
    • They are not to be compared with common people of London.
    • For the same reason, the commonalty in Scotland differ from those in England, even if the nobility are also on a level.

 

DIVISION 2: CHEAPNESS OR PLENTY

Chap 1: the Natural Wants of Mankind

  • Cheapness or plenty is the most proper way of procuring wealth and abundance.
    • Cheapness is in fact the same thing with plenty.
  • Water is so cheap because it is so plentiful.
    • Diamonds are so dear because of their scarcity.
    • (Their real use seems not yet discovered)1.
  • To ascertain the most proper method of obtaining these conveniences, we should:
    • consider what are the natural wants of mankind which are to be supplied,
    • show wherein opulence consists.
  • If we differ from common opinions, we shall at least give the reasons for our non-conformity.

 

  • Nature produces for every animal everything that is needed to support it.
    • It does not need to improve the original production.
  • Food, clothes, and lodging are all the wants of any animal.
    • Most [158] of the animals are sufficiently provided for by nature in all their wants.
  • Only man does not have any object produced to his liking.
    • He finds that improvement is needed in everything.
    • The food of savages needs no preparation.
    • But after being acquainted with fire, he finds that it can be made more wholesome and easily digested.
    • It may preserve him from many violent diseases.
    • But it is not only his food that requires this improvement.
    • His puny constitution is also hurt by the intemperature of the air which is not very capable of improvement.
      • But it must be brought to a proper temperament for his body.
    • An artificial atmosphere is prepared for this purpose.
    • The human skin cannot endure the inclemencies of the weather.
    • Even in those countries where the air is warmer than the natural warmth of the constitution, and where they have no need of clothes, it must be stained and painted to be able to endure the hardships of the sun and rain.
  • Generally however, man’s necessities are not so great.
    • They can be supplied by the unassisted labour of the individual.
  • Everyone can provide all the above necessities for himself, such as:
    • animals and fruits for food, and
    • skins for clothing.

 

  • The delicacy of a man’s body requires more provision than that of any other animal.
  • The same or rather the much greater delicacy of his mind requires a still greater provision to which all the different arts [are] subservient.
  • Man is the only animal who is possessed of such a nicety that the very colour of an object hurts him.
  • Among different objects a different division or arrangement of them pleases.
  • The taste of beauty consists [159] chiefly in:
    • proper variety,
    • easy connection, and
    • simple order
  • These are the cause of all this niceness.
    • Nothing without variety pleases us.
      • A long uniform wall is a disagreeable object.
      • Uniformity tires the mind.
    • Too much variety, such as the crowded objects of a parterre, is also disagreeable.
      • Too much variety, too far increased, creates an over-great dissipation of the mind.
    • Easy connection also renders objects agreeable.
      • When we see no reason for the contiguity of the parts, when they are without any natural connection, when they have neither a proper resemblance nor contrast, they never fail of being disagreeable.
    • If simplicity of order be not observed, so as that the whole may be easily comprehended, it hurts the delicacy of our taste.
      • Again, imitation and painting render objects more agreeable.
    • To see upon a plain, trees, forests, and other such representations, is an agreeable surprise to the mind.
    • Variety of objects also renders them agreeable.
  • What we are every day accustomed to does but very indifferently affect us.
  • Gems and diamonds are on this account much esteemed by us.
  • Similarly, our pinchbeck and many of our toys were so much valued by the Indians.
    • In bartering their jewels and diamonds for them, they thought they had made by much the better bargain.

 

Chap 2: all the Arts are subservient to the Natural Wants of Mankind

  • Those qualities, which are the ground of preference, and which give occasion to pleasure and pain, are the cause of many insignificant demands, which we by no means stand [160] in need of.
  • The industry of human life is not employed in procuring food, clothes and lodging.
    • It is employed in procuring those conveniences according to the nicety and delicacy of our taste.
  • To improve and multiply the materials, which are the principal objects of our necessities, creates all the variety of the arts.

 

  • In agriculture, the principal object is the supply of food.
    • It introduces:
      • the tilling of the ground,
      • the planting of trees,
      • the producing of flax, hemp, etc.
  • Different manufactures are introduced through these, which are so very capable of improvement.
    • The metals dug from the earth furnish materials for tools used for many of these arts.
  • Commerce and navigation are also subservient to the same purposes by collecting the produce of these several arts.
    • By these again other subsidiary [arts] are created.
  • Writing, to record the multitude of transactions, and geometry, which serves many useful purposes.
  • Law and government, too, seem to propose no other object but this.
  • They secure the individual who has enlarged his property, that he may peaceably enjoy the fruits of it.
  • By law and government:
    • all the different arts flourish.
      • It creates and sufficiently preserves that inequality of fortune.
    • domestic peace is enjoyed and security from the foreign invader.
  • Wisdom and virtue too derive their lustre from supplying these necessities.
    • For as the establishment of law and government is the highest effort of human prudence and wisdom, the causes cannot have a different influence from what the effects have
  • Besides, it is by the wisdom and probity of those with whom we live that a propriety of conduct is pointed out to us, and the proper means of attaining it.
    • Their valour defends us
    • Their benevolence supplies us.
    • By these divine qualities, the hungry are fed and the naked are clothed.
  • Thus, [161] all things are subservient to supplying our threefold necessities.

 

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